A privileged place in the Mediterranean Diet is occupied by cereals, which together with vegetables and fruit occupy the base of the food pyramid. The group of cereals includes rice, corn, barley, spelled and wheat. The latter, in particular, is common to all the populations of the Mediterranean, since it constitutes the raw material of foods such as pasta, bread, cous-cous and burghul. Cereals are mostly a source of complex carbohydrates and the ideal would be to consume wholemeal ones, as the refining process greatly depletes them of vitamins, minerals and fibers. Whole grains, in fact, have a beneficial effect on health: they substantially reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer and play an important role in the management of body weight and in the health of the digestive system.